Sigmund Freud weiter >> ... Ich weiß nicht, wieviel die einzelnen von Ihnen aus ihrer Lektüre oder vom Hörensagen über die Psychoanalyse wissen. Die Psychoanalyse geht auf den Wiener Neurologen Sigmund Freud zurück. Sigmund Freud / Psychoanalyse. Jahrhunderts. There is a force in the mind which exercises the functions of a censorship, and which excludes from consciousness and from any influence upon action all tendencies which displease it. It must not be supposed that these very general ideas are presuppositions upon which the work of psychoanalysis depends. All of these forces are originally in the nature of instincts; that is to say, they have an organic origin. Quote by Sigmund Freud In 1881, Freud obtained a degree in medicine, which equipped him with credentials that enabled him to find employment as a doctor at the Vienna General Hospital. Its influence upon dementia praecox and paranoia is doubtful; on the other hand, in favourable circumstances it can cope with depressive states, even if they are of a severe type. However, he became more interested in treating psychological disorders, so he decided to pursue a private practice that focused on this field. The Austrian-born psychiatrist greatly contributed to the understanding of human psychology in areas such as the unconscious mind, sexuality, and dream interpretation. The super-ego, the moral factor which dominates the ego, also has its origin in the process of overcoming the Oedipus complex. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Der Hauptantrieb menschlichen Verhaltens entspringe unterbewussten kindlichen Sexualphantasien, denen gesellschaftliche Normierungen gegenüberstehen. Further, the property of consciousness has a topographical reference; for processes in the id are entirely unconscious, while consciousness is the function of the ego’s outermost layer, which is concerned with the perception of the external world. Nor has there been space to allude to the applications of psychoanalysis, which originated, as we have seen, in the sphere of medicine, to other departments of knowledge (such as Anthropology, the Study of Religion, Literary History and Education) where its influence is constantly increasing. They are characterised by possessing an immense (somatic) persistence and reserve of power (“repetition-compulsion”); and they are represented mentally as images or ideas with an affective charge (“cathexis”). All experiences during the first period of childhood are of the greatest importance to the individual, and in combination with his inherited sexual constitution, form the dispositions for the subsequent development of character or disease. Die Psychoanalyse (von altgriechisch ψυχή psychḗ ‚Atem, Hauch, Seele‘, und ἀνάλυσις analysis ‚Zerlegung‘, im Sinne von „Untersuchung der Seele“) ist eine psychologische Theorie, Kulturtheorie, psychotherapeutische Behandlungsform und Methode zur Selbsterfahrung, die um 1890 von dem Wiener Neurologen Sigmund Freud begründet wurde. According to Freud, in dreams this censorship becomes weaker, and forbidden wishes can become visible to our sleeping minds, albeit in some kind of symbolic disguise or code. Freud führt hier die grundlegenden Begriffe der frühen Psychoanalyse ein. Wells. In London Freud worked on his final books, Moses and Monotheism, and the incomplete Outline of Psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and, over his immensely productive and extraordinary career, developed groundbreaking theories about the nature and workings of the human mind, which went on to have an immeasurable impact on both psychology and Western culture as a whole. The social instincts are not regarded as elementary or irreducible. Das dort beschriebene, berühmt gewordene Modell geht davon aus, dass die menschliche Psyche aus dem Es, dem Ich und dem Über-Ic… Sigmund Freud << zurück weiter >> 116 6. During the years 1911–3 two former adherents, Alfred Adler, of Vienna, and C.G. University of Vienna - Cited by 565,808 - Neurology - Psychology - Psychopathology Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020 Freud became very interested in medical and scientific research, and went on to study medicine at the University of Vienna. Le migliori offerte per Freud Sigmund-Ger-Uber Psychoanalyse BOOK NUOVO sono su eBay Confronta prezzi e caratteristiche di prodotti nuovi e usati Molti articoli con consegna gratis! Freud's work stems partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Byron House, The lectures were published two years later, and went on to become his most popular publication. SIGMUND FREUD Volume primo PRIMA SERIE DI LEZIONI PREFAZIONE Ciò che presento qui al pubblico come "Introduzione alla psicoanalisi" non vuole in alcun modo entrare in competizione con le già esistenti esposizioni generali di questo ramo del sapere (1). In 1930 Freud had been awarded the Goethe Prize for his contributions to psychology and German literary culture, but in January 1933, the newly empowered Nazis seized Freud’s books, among many other psychoanalytic and Jewish-authored works, and publicly burned them in Berlin. Psychoanalysis is founded securely upon the observation of the facts of mental life; and for that very reason its theoretical superstructure is still incomplete and subject to constant alteration. Er ist der Begründer der Psychoanalyse und gilt als einer der einflussreichsten Denker des 20. This self-investigation led him to build upon his and Breuer’s original theory that neurosis was caused by early trauma, and to develop substantially his ideas about infantile sexuality and repression. In this year Freud also discovered a pre-cancerous growth in his jaw, certainly caused by his regular and liberal consumption of cigars. From the economic standpoint psychoanalysis supposes that the mental representations of the instincts have a cathexis of definite quantities of energy, and that it is the purpose of the mental apparatus to hinder any damming-up of these energies and to keep as low as possible the total amount of the excitations to which it is subject. Freud’s complete works have been published in Spanish (Obras completas) (1924), and German (Gesammelte Schriften) (1925); the greater part of them has been translated into English and other languages. This new theory was not well received by most of his analytic colleagues in Vienna, though it would, in time, have a big impact on the thinking of several preeminent psychoanalytic thinkers, notably Jacques Lacan and Melanie Klein. In Zusammenarbeit mit Josef Breuer, erwähnte Sigmund Freud 1896 das erste mal die Psychoanalyse. In 1909 Freud and Jung were invited to America by G. Stanley Hall to deliver a series of lectures on psychoanalysis at Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Dit principe is bekend gewor… Thus the neuroses are to be regarded as inhibitions in the development of the libido. (a small Greek statue) to 1998, with the bulk of material dating from … SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei Anfang des 20. Three years later Freud would also lose Sophie’s son Heinerle, his grandson, at the age of four. Digitization of this collection was made possible by The Polonsky Foundation. Siegmund Freud geht davon aus, dass menschliche… He therefore induced her, while she was in a state of hypnotic somnambulism, to search for these connections in her memory and to live through the “pathogenic” scenes once again without inhibiting the affects that arose in the process. 00200962 Charity no. Improving the quality of your professional activity. The reasons for this hostility are to be found, from the medical point of view, in the fact that psychoanalysis lays stress upon psychical factors, and from the philosophical point of view, in its assuming as an underlying postulate the concept of unconscious mental activity; but the strongest reason was undoubtedly the general disinclination of mankind to concede to the factor of sexuality such importance as is assigned to it by psychoanalysis. In them he outlined the key tenets of psychoanalytic theory, as he had developed them over the past two decades, including his ideas of repression, free association and libido. His father was a wool merchant with a keen mind and a good sense of humor. Vorlesung. The growth later turned into cancer and would ultimately cause his death sixteen years later. ... und darauf fragten wir – nein, zum Glück nicht wir, sondern andere, die der Psychoanalyse ganz fernstehen, da fragten ihn diese anderen, was er mit dieser unverständlichen Rede wolle. Psychoanalyse: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Am 6. The primary assumption of psychoanalysis is the belief that all people possess unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories. Freud and Carl Jung quickly became close colleagues and friends, both fascinated and enthused by the possibilities of psychoanalysis. Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born on 6th May 1856 to Jewish parents, Amalia and Jakob Freud, in a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire now in the Czech Republic. Sigmund Freud (Moravia, 6 May 1856 – London, 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist (a person who treats the nervous system). Stationery, garments, pictures, souvenirs We offer a wide range of products, have a look at our catalog! Sigmund Freud is best known as the creator of the therapeutic technique known as psychoanalysis. The infantile fixations of the libido are what determine the form of neurosis which sets in later. In psychoanalysis, no less than in other sciences, the theory of instincts is an obscure subject. 112a Shirland Road, In every instance the treatment makes heavy claims upon both the physician and the patient: the former requires a special training, and must devote a long period of time to exploring the mind of each patient, while the latter must make considerable sacrifices, both material and mental. His mother was a lively woman, her husband's second wife and 20 years younger. In many cases they succeed in making their influence felt by circuitous paths, and the indirect or substitutive gratification of repressed impulses is what constitutes neurotic symptoms. W9 2BT, Telephone: 020 7563 5000 Mai 1856 wurde Sigmund Freud in Freiberg (Pribor, Österreich) geboren. Sigmund Freud war ein österreichischer Arzt, Neurophysiologe, Tiefenpsychologe, Kulturtheoretiker und Religionskritiker. In the coming years and decades, Freud’s clinical work with his patients – among them the famous ‘Dora’, ‘Rat Man’, and ‘Little Hans’ – would remain the basis and core of his work, and would provide the vital material for his continual advancement and refinement of his theory of the mind. But he did not pursue the matter any further at the time, and it was not until some 10 years later that he took it up again in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud is best known as the creator of the therapeutic technique known as psychoanalysis. Webshop of the Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna: exclusive merchandise from Berggasse 19 - the place, where Freud developed psychoanalysis! Seine Theorien und Methoden werden bis heute diskutiert und angewendet, aber auch kritisiert. By “transference” is meant a striking peculiarity of neurotics. Thus psychoanalytic treatment acts as a second education of the adult, as a corrective to his education as a child. Freud believed these dream symbols were far from simple to interpret, often embodying several meanings at once. Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalyse Inhaltsverzeichnis III. An empirical analysis leads to the formation of two groups of instincts: the so-called “ego-instincts,” which are directed towards self-preservation and the “object-instincts,” which are concerned with relations to an external object. Sigmund Freud. Band 7: ›psychoanalyse‹ - Sigmund Freud und das Problem des konkreten gesellschaftlichen Allgemeinen. Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, appreciated the many ways in which our minds are troubled and anxious. And, on this view, recovery would be a result of the liberation of the affect that had gone astray and of its discharge along a normal path (“Abreaction”). Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, appreciated the many ways in which our minds are troubled and anxious. Freud ging davon aus, dass seelische Probleme durch unbewusste Konflikte entstehen, die auf die Kindheit zurückgehen. Before this there are a number of “pre-genital organisations” of the libido—points at which it may become “fixated” and to which, in the event of subsequent repression, it will return (“regression”). Si laureò in medicina a Vienna nel 1881, e conseguì nel 1885 la libera docenza in neuropatologia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The belief that in man sexual life begins only at puberty is incorrect. Sigmund Freud nasce il 6 maggio 1856 a Příbor, nella Repubblica Ceca (a quel tempo Freiberg, in Moravia). Maida Vale, London, Supervision and organisational development have been crucial constituents of the clinical and scientific work at the Sigmund-Freud-Institute since its establishment. Image Provided by Wikimedia Commons. Updates? Sie wurde erst durch ihn innerhalb der Psychologie zu einer bedeutenden Strömung. During the 1890s, Freud worked with Austrian physician… When Sigmund was three, the Freuds moved to Vienna. Ernest Jones was very worried about this determination to stay in what was becoming an increasingly dangerous place for Jews, and he flew into Vienna soon after the annexation, determined to get Freud to move to Britain. Dec. 15, 2020. Image Provided by Wikimedia Commons. He would later call this process ‘free association’. Cathartic treatment gave excellent therapeutic results, but it was found that they were not permanent and that they were dependent on the personal relation between the patient and the physician. From that time forward interest in Europe grew rapidly; it showed itself, however, in a forcible rejection of the new teachings, characterised by an emotional colouring which sometimes bordered upon the unscientific. Die Psychoanalyse nach Sigmund Freud Die um 1900 von Sigmund Freud entwickelte Psychoanalyse wurde zum Feststellen und zur Beseitigung von Neurosen eingesetzt. Psychoanalysis does not act as a convenient panacea (“cito, tute, jucunde”) upon all psychological disorders. Scopri Über Psychoanalyse: Fünf Vorlesungen di Freud, Sigmund: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. Le migliori offerte per Sigmund Freud ebook Collection la psicoanalisi Edition raccolta EBOOK KINDLE sono su eBay Confronta prezzi e caratteristiche di prodotti nuovi e … Das Seminar, Buch VI (1958-1959) - [OT: "Le désir et son interprétation ". The original group was made up of Freud, Wilhelm Stekel, Alfred Adler, Max Kahane, and Rudolph Reitler, all Viennese physicians. Freuds Psychoanalyse findet vermehrt Beachtung und er versucht, Abweichungen von ihr zu verhindern. In 1895 they published a book, Studien über Hysterie, in which Breuer’s discoveries were described and an attempt was made to explain them by the theory of Catharsis. Deze energiestromen noemde hij ‘driften’ (Triebe). Out of these experiments in hypnosis, and in collaboration with his colleague Josef Breuer, Freud developed a new kind of psychological treatment based on the patient talking about whatever came to mind – memories, dreams, thoughts, emotions – and then analysing that information in order to relieve the patient’s symptoms. He nonetheless found himself unable to give them up, and likened his addiction to them to his obsessional collecting of antiquities. Sigmund Freud. Eine Neurose im Sinne von Freud stellt einen innerpsychischen Konflikt zwi-schen Über-Ich und Es dar. In einem Brief an Sigmund Freud schlägt Breuer vor, das von ihm bei der Behandlung von Bertha Pappenheim (in der Literatur bezeichnet als Anna O.) Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Sigmund Freud - über Psychoanalyse at the best online prices at eBay! Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in a small town -- Freiberg -- in Moravia. Jun 14, 2019 - Explore Maria Kusnetsova's board "Psychoanalyse" on Pinterest. Email: email@example.com, Copyright © The Institute of Psychoanalysis, British Psychoanalytical Society (incorporating the Institute of Psychoanalysis), Limited Company Registered in England & Wales no. According to the most recent psychoanalytic views, the mental apparatus is composed of an “id,” which is the reservoir of the instinctive impulses, of an “ego,” which is the most superficial portion of the id and one which is modified by the influence of the external world, and of a “super-ego,” which develops out of the id, dominates the ego and represents the inhibitions of instinct characteristic of man. Opere di Sigmund Freud (OSF) è il titolo della raccolta, in dodici volumi, di tutti i principali scritti del fondatore della psicoanalisi, oltre ad appunti, annotazioni, carteggi, e altro materiale. Jung, began to concern themselves in the subject; and in 1908 there took place at Salzburg a first meeting of adherents from a number of different countries. Freud was deeply affected by Charcot’s work, and upon returning to Vienna he started using hypnosis in his own clinical work with patients. September 1939 in London) war ein österreichischer Arzt, Neurophysiologe, Tiefenpsychologe, Kulturtheoretiker und Religionskritiker.Er ist der Begründer der Psychoanalyse und gilt als einer der einflussreichsten Denker des 20. Abriß der Psychoanalyse. By the autumn of 1939, the progression of Freud's cancer was causing him severe pain and had by this point been declared inoperable. In 1923 Freud published his important paper, 'The Ego and the Id'. Der Psychische Apparat I. Mensch Freud - Biographische Early forays into this new ‘talking cure’ by Breuer and Freud yielded promising results (notably in the famous case of ‘Anna O.’) A year before marrying his fiancée Martha Bernays, Freud published Studies on Hysteria (1895) with Breuer, the first ever ‘psychoanalytic’ work. Kurzüberblick über die Psychoanalyse - Psychologie / Sonstiges - Referat 2001 - ebook 0,- € - GRIN Nell'atto di nascita compare il nome di Sigismund, ma dal 1875 lui stesso inizia a firmarsi come Sigmund Freud… The year after the end of the war, in 1919, Freud examined soldiers traumatized by their experience of fighting. A hysterical symptom would thus be a substitute for an omitted mental act and a reminiscence of the occasion which should have given rise to that act. Einführende Darstellungen. Ernest Jones and Stefan Zweig spoke at his funeral. Breuer and Freud, Studien über Hysterie (1895); Freud, Traumdeutung (1900); Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens (1904); Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (1905); Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse (1916). The psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, or Freudian theory, is a theory about personality organisation, the dynamics between the various stages of personality development, and the impact this has on the development of human beings’ libido. Die Psychoanalyse wurde Ende des 19. Zum Teil erfahren sie Bestätigung durch die Erkenntnisse der … Dadurch kommt es zum Bruch mit einigen seiner Schüler, darunter Alfred Adler und Carl Gustav Jung. From the first of these standpoints, the dynamic one, psychoanalysis derives all mental processes (apart from the reception of external stimuli) from the interplay of forces, which assist or inhibit one another, combine with one another, enter into compromises with one another, etc. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and, over his immensely productive and extraordinary career, developed groundbreaking theories about the nature and workings of the human mind, which went on to have an immeasurable impact on both psychology and Western culture as a whole. Abriß der Psychoanalyse… The justification for this arose with the discovery that the dreams and mistakes (“parapraxes,” such as slips of the tongue, etc.) 1909 folgt Freud einer Einladung an die Clark University in den USA, um dort Vorträge zu halten. Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. "Über Psychoanalyse" ist eine Serie von fünf Vorlesungen die Freud zum 20jährigen Jubiläum der Clark University in Worchester, Massachussetts gehalten hat. In psychoanalysis the manifestation of the force of Eros is given the name “libido.”. In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Lacan, Jacques Miller, Jacques-Alain (Hg.) There are no specific causes of nervous disorders; the question whether a conflict finds a healthy solution or leads to a neurotic inhibition of function depends upon quantitative considerations, that is, upon the relative strength of the forces concerned. Sigmund Freud first used the term 'psychoanalysis' (French: psychoanalyse) in 1896, ultimately retaining the term for his own school of thought. CONSULTING. In the course of development the original pleasure principle undergoes a modification with reference to the external world, giving place to the “reality-principle,” whereby the mental apparatus learns to postpone the pleasure of satisfaction and to tolerate temporarily feelings of pain. The Nazis described this destruction as acting, "[A]gainst the soul-destroying glorification of the instinctual life, for the nobility of the human soul!” Meanwhile Freud’s comment on these barbaric proceedings was rather more ironic: "What progress we are making. Sigmund Freud. The principal field of its application is in the milder neuroses—hysteria, phobias and obsessional states, but in malformations of character and in sexual inhibitions or abnormalities it can also bring about marked improvements or even recoveries. As a unique piece of anthology, this article provides a remarkably clear exposition of psychoanalytic theory interlaced with Freud’s reflections upon his own scientific legacy. "Über Psychoanalyse" ist eine Serie von fünf Vorlesungen die Freud zum 20jährigen Jubiläum der Clark University in Worchester, Massachussetts gehalten hat. The reactions against the instinctual demands of the Oedipus complex are the source of the most precious and socially important achievements of the human mind; and this probably holds true not only in the life of individuals but also in the history of the human species as a whole. Such tendencies are described as “repressed.” They remain unconscious; and if the physician attempts to bring them into the patient’s consciousness he provokes a “resistance.” These repressed instinctual impulses, however, are not always made powerless by this process. He invented the treatment of mental illness and neurosis by means of psychoanalysis.. Freud is important in psychology because he studied the unconscious mind.The unconscious part of the mind cannot be easily controlled or noticed by a person. You can learn more about Sigmund Freud with our online Introductory Lectures course. Scegli tra immagini premium su Sigmund Freud della migliore qualità. In 'The Psychopathology of Everyday Life', he introduced the idea of ‘Freudian’ slips and ‘verbal bridges’, and in 'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality,' he delineated his early thinking about psychosexual development and infantile sexuality. Start studying Psychoanalyse - Sigmund Freud (FMS). Scopri le migliori foto stock e immagini editoriali di attualità di Sigmund Freud su Getty Images. Secondly, there is no reason for astonishment that psychoanalysis, which was originally no more than an attempt at explaining pathological mental phenomena, should have developed into a psychology of normal mental life. of normal men have the same mechanism as neurotic symptoms. Sigmund Freud (geboren am 6.Mai 1856 in Freiberg in Mähren als Sigismund Schlomo Freud; gestorben am 23. Grund dafür war die Behandlung von Bertha Pappenheim, die später als "der Fall Anna O." They moved into 20 Maresfield Gardens, in Hampstead (now the Freud Museum), where Freud continued to write and treat patients, despite the painful advancement of his jaw cancer. The course of mental processes is automatically regulated by the “pleasure-pain principle”; and pain is thus in some way related to an increase of excitation and pleasure to a decrease. In November 1899, he wrote the Interpretation of Dreams (German: Die Traumdeutung), which Freud thought of as his "most significant work." Between 1901 and 1905 Freud continued to elaborate and expand his model of human psychology, and he wrote two more very important works. It is in this work that he revised his theory that human behaviour is almost entirely driven by sexual instincts, instead portraying the psyche in a state of conflict between opposites: creative, life-seeking, sexual Eros; and destructive, death-bent Thanatos. Consulting: supervision and organisational development. It was after these American lectures that Freud’s renown and influence began to grow far beyond the confines of the Viennese medical community. Die Psychoanalytische Theorie 1. By the beginning of the twentieth century Freud’s ideas were drawing interest from several colleagues in Vienna. The year of Sophie’s death, Freud published 'Beyond the Pleasure Principle', a paper introducing his concepts of repetition compulsion and the death instinct, and building upon his earlier description of the function and operation of dreams. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. He saw the preconscious mind as a kind of censor or bodyguard, only allowing unthreatening thoughts into the conscious mind. Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. “The future will probably attribute far greater importance to psychoanalysis as the science of the unconscious,” Freud wrote, “than as a therapeutic procedure.” Freud also chafed at what he seemed to think was the too-small space allotted to his article. In 1920 Freud suffered a personal tragedy when his daughter Sophie died from the influenza eviscerating an already war-damaged Europe. 212330 VAT no. Here he further developed and elucidated his model of the human mind, introducing his ‘Superego-Ego-Id’ formulation to supersede the 'conscious-preconscious-unconscious' structure described in The Interpretation of Dreams. Blog. Psychoanalysis is defined as a set of psychological theories and therapeutic methods which have their origin in the work and theories of Sigmund Freud. - Fondatore della psicoanalisi (v.), nato il 6 maggio 1856, di famiglia israelitica, a Freiberg (ora Přibor) in Moravia. It was also in The Interpretation of Dreams that Freud introduced perhaps his most famous concept of the Oedipus Complex, and it was here that he first mapped out his topographical model of the mind. Am 23.9.1939 verstarb Freud in London nach einem längeren Krebsleiden. The analytical theory of the neuroses is based upon three ground-pillars: the recognition of (1) “repression,” of (2) the importance of the sexual instincts and of (3) “transference.”. Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born on 6th May 1856 to Jewish parents, Amalia and Jakob Freud, in a part of the … Zum Beispiel entwickelte er die freie Assoziation. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. bekannt wurde. The primary assumption of psychoanalysis is the belief that all people possess unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories. Particularly accessible to English readers are: A.A. Brill, Psycho-Analysis (1922); Ernest Jones, Papers on Psycho-Analysis (1923). Short accounts of the subject-matter and history of psychoanalysis will be found in: Freud, Ueber Psychoanalyse (the lectures delivered at Worcester, U.S.A.) (1909); Zur Geschichte der psychoanalytischen Bewegung (1914); Selbstdarstellung (in Grote’s collection Die Medizin der Gegenwart) (1925). By 1896, Freud had abandoned hypnosis and started using the term ‘psychoanalysis’ to refer to this new clinical method and its underlying theories. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Theoretical speculation leads to the suspicion that there are two fundamental instincts which lie concealed behind the manifest ego-instincts and object-instincts: namely (a) Eros, the instinct which strives for ever closer union, and (b) the instinct of destruction, which leads toward the dissolution of what is living.