The Rolling Stones stage is prepared with black soap – according to the. 2: Zeithistorische Fallstudien 1958-1988, edited by Bodo Mrozek, Alexa Geisthöve, and Jürgen Danyel. Das Bauwerk ist trutzig, mit kleinen, vergitterten Fenstern und stilisierten Zinnen entlang des Dachfirstes. Nevertheless, the problems in Berlin considerably slowed down the future development of open-air rock concerts in Germany, which were generally criminalised in somewhat excessive discourse from the media, police, politicians, and academics alike. , September 9, 1965; ‘Bindet die Stühle an!’, Before the Stones’ German tour, the popular newspaper. While different actors tried to add to the disreputable image of the Stones before the concert, presenting them without hesitation as the ‘hardest group in the world’, to set them apart from the ‘nice’ Beatles, the media then only accentuated the desired effect. In reality, the group were discreetly housed in Grunewald, a sparsely populated area on the outskirts of Berlin, largely covered in forest.9 The group then took a top secret route through the Berlin backstreets to get to the pressroom of the publisher Springer, where a press conference was held, having only been announced a short time before. Fights between Mods and Rockers broke out in seaside resorts in the south of England, while in Paris a mass concert announced as the ‘Nuit de la Nation’ (held on the city’s Place de la Nation) spiralled out of control.1 This article restricts its focus to discussing the Rolling Stones tour which, in autumn 1965, became a focal point for media, police and political debate in Germany.2 I discuss the reception of the concert more than the band and their music, which are already sufficiently well known, and, in so doing, I draw on police reports and press articles from the months immediately after the event. edn (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1978), p. 816. It analyses how youth culture and popular culture were criminalised and became established in six countries in the 1950s and 1960s. An initial police intervention cleared the stage, although not without ‘the use of batons’, and, after a short pause, the group was able to resume playing. 21The incidents that took place during the Rolling Stones’ Berlin concert demonstrate in an exemplary fashion how the emergence of new forms of culture in the 1960s did not occur without conflict.59 While different actors tried to add to the disreputable image of the Stones before the concert, presenting them without hesitation as the ‘hardest group in the world’, to set them apart from the ‘nice’ Beatles, the media then only accentuated the desired effect. A new debate about the state of that youth began. A mere six minutes later, the report describes how the situation escalated. ‘Rolling Stones machen keine Musik – nur Lärm’ (with the Associated Press agency), The question of banning concerts was also debated at an inter-regional level. Eine Betrachtung von Wolfgang Fietkau’, Blickpunkt, no 143, November 1965, p. 3. 10, 5All the way through to the evening, fans continue to flood into the Waldbühne without incident. Haus Christine Gundelsheim. 40 Note on the urgent question of the CDU group on the prevention of scenes of violence and vandalism in Berlin, III B 3 – 0321/440 5254, PhS 3.43.3. In order better to understand the events in Germany, the German police asked the French police for their files on the ‘Nuit de la Nation’.56 Transposing ‘American conditions’ in Germany sometimes exacerbated discussion, as evidenced by this report from the Federal German police in which the author remarked that means of ‘coercion’ such as ‘scatterguns’ had been used in the United States and concluded that ‘with the agreement of citizens concerned about public order, it might be wise sometimes to use more draconian means to restore public safety and order’.57. cit., p. 7. The socialdemocratic senator for youth and sports also made a measured declaration, reminding ‘the elders here present’ that ‘during the Roaring Twenties, he had indulged in strange dances and his parents had had trouble understanding his behaviour’. See the Report of the Schutzpolizei command S1, Berlin, 16 September 1965, p. 3, Polizeihistorische. 15It is true that due to problems with their insurance, the Waldbühne remained in ruins for so long that it was not able to host another beat music concert during the following years. Für seine Leistungen wurde Town & Country Haus mehrfach ausgezeichnet: Neben dem Franchise-Geber-Preis (2003) zählen der EKS-Strategiepreis (2004), der dritte Platz beim „Sales Award“ des Handelsblattes (2005) sowie der Deutsche Franchise-Nehmer-Preis 2006 zu den wichtigsten Auszeichnungen. The venue was entirely sold out. 22 See the following interview with someone who participated in the clashes: ‘Wenn man da mitten drinne is, denn fällt det ja nich uff, wenn da eener mehr mitmischt’, Blickpunkt, no 143, November 1965, p. 5-10, and here p. 8. When a Christian Democratic Union (CDU) representative argued that an example should have been made, by punishing the youths who were arrested, a representative of the Liberals objected that the water cannon could not ‘distinguish the guilty from the innocent’. 21 See the Report on the execution and experience of the police measures, p. 6. Note on the urgent question of the CDU group on the prevention of scenes of violence and vandalism in Berlin, III B 3 – 0321/440 5254, PhS 3.43.3. , January 6, 1967; see H. J. Bünger, ‘Stadtrat “randalierte” auf dem Mittelring zur Probe. Eine bundesweit einmalige Einrichtung gegen KriminalitÃ¤t und Extremismus mit Angeboten von Land, Stadt und Kreis entsteht im Malteser-Haus am Erk-Platz. Und nicht jede/r, den/die Polizeigewalt treffe, sei unschuldig daran. The Transnational Debates of the 1960s. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Tauschen Sie sich mit Feuerwerk-Experten aus und informieren Sie sich. cit., p. 265-273; Thomas Grotum, “Die Bill-Haley-Tournee 1958. Konsum und Politik in der westdeutschen Jugendkultur der 60er Jahre. From the outset, preparations included a large police operation. See the following interview with someone who participated in the clashes: ‘Wenn man da mitten drinn. ‘Rock’n’Roll Panic’ in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland”. Paris: Fayard, 2001. Certain accounts report that some of the audience climbed onto the benches and jumped up and down on them in rhythm, whilst shouting in chorus for the concert to continue. The event also sparked administrative reform. Polizist_innen würden bespuckt und beleidigt und angegriffen, das habe er selbst schon erlebt. Der Wachmann hat einen bürstenförmigen Schnauzbart und kleine, grüne Augen. See letter from Kindler und Schiermeyer publishers to the Police Prefect dated September 1, 1965, PhS 3.43.3. p. 265-273; Thomas Grotum, “Die Bill-Haley-Tournee 1958. Approche interdisciplinaire, Savoirs, politiques et pratiques de l'exécution des peines en France au XX, L’aménagement des peines privatives de liberté : l’exécution de la peine autrement, "Théâtre et Justice : autour de la mise en scène des, Le SMPR de Marseille a 30 ans : Histoire et engagement, regards croisés, Catalogue des 552 revues. Eine transnationale Geschichte, Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, Surveiller les Stones : musique et violence à Berlin. ), BRAVO. All security measures had been discussed beforehand by representatives of the organisers with the police and the inspectorate in charge of the Waldbühne. After the event, these expressions would come to be considered prophetic. Vol. », Criminocorpus [En ligne], Rock et violences en Europe, Blousons noirs et rébellions, mis en ligne le 11 juillet 2019, consulté le 27 décembre 2020. Zeitschrift für die Berliner Polizei. ‘Ventilsitte.’ In Lexikon zur Soziologie (2nd revised edition), edited by Werner Fuchs et al. Join Facebook to connect with Ulrike Lehmann and others you may know. At the same time, the deliberate destruction of the Waldbühne’s equipment began. These included, among others, the ‘Beatlemania’ that – according to the contemporaries – spread like wildfire across Europe, the United States, and as far as Japan. The main concert was scheduled to begin at 9.30pm. Translated into English from the French by Lucy Garnier. 20 Note on the ‘Rolling Stones’ concert on September 15, 1965 at the Waldbühne, September 8, 1965. Misinformation had deliberately been leaked to the press claiming that rooms had been booked in the city centre. Habt ihr irgendwelche Ideen ?! Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2011. In addition to the responsibility borne by the press, a police spokesperson underlined that of the music itself, moving away from the prior conclusions reached by the foremost German police psychologist, Rolf Umbach, for whom the fans’ contorted dancing – described by the media as ‘convulsive nodding and rhythmic swaying of long Jesus-like hair’ or as movements reminiscent of ‘someone milking a female elephant [. 2The Rolling Stones’ tour was organised by the youth magazine Bravo, following the example of its French counterpart Salut les copains, which, two years earlier, had organised the concert in Paris at Place de la Nation in collaboration with the radio station Europe 1. The police officers withdrew in order to be divided into new groups. Unser Newsticker zum Thema Irmer enthält aktuelle Nachrichten von heute Mittwoch, dem 25. See: ‘Die Waldbühne im Wiederaufbau. Petry hat auf alles eine Antwort, noch bevor die Frage gestellt wird, beziehungsweise die häufig gar nicht so gestellt wird, wie Frauke Petry sie gern hätte. / 2 / / TdZ November 2020 / Inhalt November 2020 thema theater und architektur. The violence also took place in reaction to the police intervention, which was in part unnecessarily aggressive, and as a result of logistical organisation and material conditions that were entirely unsuited to the new format required by a rock concert – as was the case in Paris with the ‘Nuit de la Nation’. Larger groups were also ‘dispersed’ using fire hoses and a few youths were apprehended and placed in the space for prisoners. In the Waldbühne, though, the police report testifies to the reverse effect: ‘in the glare of the spotlights, they [the audience] lost all inhibitions and felt as though they were the “photogenic focus” of all attention.’21 When the spotlights were suddenly turned off, at the organisers’ request, to signal to the audience that the show was over, many of them panicked as they were suddenly plunged into darkness.22 Recorded as occurring at 10pm, the ‘end of the event’ was disorderly, as the report states: Hundreds of youths [tried to] storm the stage. In a close reading of records from the Berlin Police archives, it understands the events at the concert as the combined result of a lack of experience with new cultural forms of expression, old-fashioned ideas of ‘order’ deeply rooted in German history, and logistical failures. The convoy also included unmarked cars to ward off any potential fans in vehicles, but everything went according to plan. The first firecrackers were thrown, along with some objects including shoes and underwear. Bitte, Frau Petry, nennen Sie einen Stadtbezirk, wo die Polizei nicht mehr hingeht! Shortly after this abrupt end, ‘to avoid further destruction, the evacuation of the Waldbühne’ began around 10.15pm ‘with the use of batons’. Vol. Misinformation had deliberately been leaked to the press claiming that rooms had been booked in the city centre. Police riot squads ready for action,”, Anti-Rock: the Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll, The Rolling Stones’ tour was organised by the youth magazine, following the example of its French counterpart. Request by the Wiesbaden Prefect of Police to the Berlin Prefect of Police, dated March 31, 1966, P, meeting between officers of the Protection Police (Schutzpolizei) and Criminal I. Rolf Umbach, ‘Beat Ekstase und Polizeieinsatz’, Polizeischau. In a close reading of records from the Berlin Police archives, it understands the events at the concert as the combined result of a lack of experience with new cultural forms of expression, old-fashioned ideas of ‘order’ deeply rooted in German history, and logistical failures. Eine transnationale Geschichte. In these interpretations, it is above all male aggression that is ‘tamed’ in this way. In Essen, unconventional methods were used as described in one report, for example covering the front of the stage with black soap so that any fans trying to climb up would slide back down again under the jeers of the crowd! 1, Germersheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, 76726 Kontakt Map Öffnungszeiten Bewertungen According to one press report, the stage was littered with ‘orphaned’ pieces of lingerie.17 Around 9.15pm, the police report indicates an initial ‘surge in tension before the arrival of the Rolling Stones’.18A mere six minutes later, the report describes how the situation escalated. In May 1966, in anticipation of the Beatles concert, Wiesbaden police organised a working meeting on the topic of ‘modern police behaviour towards young people’, in which there was discussion of the lessons to be learned from the events in Berlin.52 The police were given training in crowd psychology, initially rejected by many of them as ‘brainwashing’ imposed by police prefects.53 In Munich, a jazz expert was invited to speak to senior police officers to give them an introduction, with the aim of raising their awareness of different sounds, with the help of a ‘very good Jazz band’.54, 19For comparative purposes, the German police also looked at similar events that had taken place abroad. Sportlerheim Wolfsberg. This article analyses the violence that broke out at a 1965 Rolling Stones concert in West Berlin. which, two years earlier, had organised the concert in Paris at Place de la Nation in collaboration with the radio station Europe 1. Foto: Steffen Gross. Die anderen finden das toll. Der CDU-Abgeordnete Irmer ist für seine Ausfälle gegen Ausländer, den Islam oder Homosexuelle bekannt. Only a few hand-picked guests – a dozen people closely connected to the organisers and a few reporters – were allowed to approach the musicians as they left the airport’s military zone via an entrance usually closed to the public, with special authorisation from the Commandant of the French sector in Berlin. (Ed.). Al. ‘Rock’n’Roll Panic’ in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland”. Analysing the aftermath of the concert, the article demonstrates how not only the event itself, but also the effects of rock music in general and the state of post-war youth, were discussed extensively in the media and even in a political debate at the Berlin city parliament. Hotel & Restaurant Haus Irmer Berliner Straße 88, 03099 Kolkwitz. 54 Rolf Umbach, ‘Beat Ekstase und Polizeieinsatz’, Polizeischau. They also took up the topic of the fear of delinquency, dating back to the previous decade, in relation to rock 'n' roll and fuelled by demographic data suggesting societies were becoming ever younger. Pathologie mentale, sexualité et expérience de l'autre, La prévention des récidives : Évaluation, suivis, partenariats, Les Fourches Patibulaires du Moyen Âge à l’Époque moderne. From 9.10pm onwards, the atmosphere started to ‘become heated’. "setzen sich die Partner Stadt Wetzlar und Lahn-Dill-Kreis bereits seit Jahren gemeinsam mit Vertretern von Zivilgesellschaft, Kirchen, Vereinen und VerbÃ¤nden fÃ¼r die FÃ¶rderung von Demokratie und Vielfalt und gegen verfassungsfeindliche Tendenzen ein. Eine transnationale Geschichte (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2019), p. 496-453, 614-635; Florence Tamagne, ‘La “Nuit de la Nation”: culture jeune, rock’n’roll et panique morale dans la France des années 1960,’ in Rock et violences en Europe, Criminocorpus – Revue hypermedia, edited by Pascal Dupuy and Joann Élart, 2018, doi: https://journals.openedition.org/criminocorpus/4481. See the following chapter: Alexander Mitscherlich, ‘Die Idee des Friedens und die menschliche Agres. As a result, police reforms and new safety standards for concert halls and arenas were developed and internationally debated. 143, November 1965, p. 5-10, and here p. 8. As for the city of Munich, it considered applying a 14,000 Deutschmark tax on entertainment spectacles on the pretext that the shows by ‘young London singers’ were not about music but simply a form of popular entertainment. In their analysis of the concert, the organisers and the police alike participated in a transnational debate and reacted to rock-related events partly in line with new standards. Zeitschrift für musisches Leben in der Jugend, no V, October 1965, p. 240-243. Enjeux historiques, perspectives contemporaines, Folie et justice de l'Antiquité à l'époque contemporaine, Figures de faux-monnayeurs du Moyen Âge à nos jours, Identification, contrôle et surveillance des personnes, Espaces de détention : territoires, patrimoines et lieux vécus, Attica ! In unserem Nachrichtenticker können Sie live die neuesten Eilmeldungen auf Deutsch von Portalen, Zeitungen, Magazinen und Blogs lesen sowie nach älteren Meldungen suchen. edn (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1978), p. 816. rev. The incidents that took place during the Rolling Stones’ Berlin concert demonstrate in an exemplary fashion how the emergence of new forms of culture in the 1960s did not occur without conflict. The function of such practices is to ‘evacuate natural aggression’ in a controlled environment, in order to ward off more serious harm. Annex b3 to S 1 524/65 of September 23, 1965: ‘Abschrift des Kommentars von Matthias Walden über den Verlauf der Veranstaltung mit den Rolling Stones in der Waldbühne’, PhS 3.43.3. edited by Teddy Hoersch (Munich: Collection Rolf Heyne, 2006), p. 191. Dessen Vorsitzender, der Wetzlarer CDU-Bundestagsabgeordnete Hans-Jürgen Irmer, sagte, egal ob Land, Stadt oder Kreis - alle Beteiligten zögen an einem Strang. Polizei Direktion 6 (Südost) Verkehrsunfalldienst Nipkowstraße 23, Berlin (Bezirk Treptow-Köpenick) ... Hotel & Restaurant Haus Irmer Kolkwitz. The police force present managed to clear the stage and surrounding area, through the use of batons. 38 Agency Bulletin ‘Berliner Polizei fuer Verbot von Krawall-Veranstaltungen’, n.d., typescript, PhS 3.43.3. Once again, then, the 1960s emerge as a period of transition (‘Schwellenzeit’, Reinhart Koselleck) in the establishing of an increasingly transnational youth pop culture in the second half of the twentieth century. Agency Bulletin ‘Berliner Polizei fuer Verbot von Krawall-Veranstaltungen’, n.d., typescript, PhS 3.43.3. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. The discourse of criminalisation came to an end and the rock concert became recognised as a cultural event. The representatives used the example of the concert to debate their parties’ conceptions of youth and security policies, with the result that a ban was put to a vote but finally defeated. 44 See Report on the experience of police measures relating to beat music concerts, sheet 9, 15. FEUERWERK.net ist seit über 20 Jahren das bedeutendste und reichweitenstärkste deutschsprachige Internetportal für Feuerwerk und Pyrotechnik. Erfolgreich haben sie sich nun auch fÃ¼r das Projekt "Gemeinsam fair und tolerant" im Programm "Hessen - aktiv fÃ¼r Demokratie und gegen Extremismus" beworben. PhS. Only a few hand-picked guests – a dozen people closely connected to the organisers and a few reporters – were allowed to approach the musicians as they left the airport’s military zone via an entrance usually closed to the public, with special authorisation from the Commandant of the French sector in Berlin.8 A bus then took them straight to their accommodation at a secret location. ‘teddy boys’, and ‘juvenile delinquents’ constantly made the headlines.